Progress Exam I Study Guide
The exam will have 30 questions including multiple choice and perhaps a few short answer items. It covers the material up to and including cells & organelles IV. There will be images on this exam.
This review sheet is organized by lecture. If you go through and answer the various questions that I list below, you should be in good shape for the exam.
Formed Elements of Blood
- List basic functions of blood.
- Know the RELATIVE abundance of the different types of leukocytes.
- Know the basic structure/function of the erythrocyte.
- What is the membrane skeleton? What does it do? What molecular defect leads to Hereditary Spherocytosis?
- What is the molecular basis of sickle cell disease? How does this lead to the clinical symptoms seen in patients?
- Make a table of leukocytes with columns: size, basic function (including any key molecular effectors, mophological description (i.e. how do you recognize this cell in a blood smear?)
- What is diapedesis? Which adhesion molecules are involved?
- What are the basic functions of platelets? Where do platelets come from?
Cells & Organelles I & II
- Plasma membrane
- Basic structure: understand fluid mosaic model, various types of membrane proteins & glycocalyx
- Learn the basic functions of: membranes, different types of membrane proteins & the glycocalyx.
- What are "membrane domains" & what role do occluding junctions play in their maintainance?
- Can you explain how is glucose transported across the gut epithelium?
- Cell signaling: Understand how the basic way that heterotrimeric G proteins work (lecture notes, cells & organelles I).
- Membrane-bound organelles
- Understand endocytosis (and phagocytosis)
- Can you describe receptor mediated endocytosis via clathrin coated pits?
- How might a defect in receptor-mediated endocytosis be related to high levels of LDL in the blood and early death from atherosclerosis?
- Mitochondria structure & function
- What is the role of the inner membrane?
- What happens in the matrix space?
- Mitochondrial genome - understand the maternal inheritance of mitochondrial diseases.
- How are new mitochondria produced and how does this relate to their evolutionary origin?
- Where are mitochondria usually located in cells? Why? Can you provide a few examples?
- Where are most mitochondrial proteins encoded? Where are most mitochondrial proteins translated?
- Rough endoplasmic reticulum
- Understand the signal hypothesis.
- What are the major functions of the RER?
- Golgi apparatus - understand the major functions: review textbook page 52 figure 2.35, and lecture notes, cells & organelles II.
- What are primary and secondary lysosomes?
- What is the role of pH in lysososme function?
- What are autophagosomes? How can you distinguish them from lysosomes in the TEM?
- Clinical correlation:
- Understand the concept of lysosomal storage diseases.
- Recognize the names of the following lysosomal storage diseases: Hurler, Tay-Sachs,
Gaucher, I-cell disease
- Understand their basic structure and function.
- How are new proteins targeted to the peroxisome?
- Proteosomes - what are they and what do they do?
Cells & Organelles III
- What are the three major filament types of the cytoskeleton, and which of them are polor?
- For polar filaments, what is the meaning of "+" and "-" end?
- What are the names of the various "motor" proteins that move along cytoskeletal filaments? What filament does each motor move on? What direction does each motor go?
- Why don't mictotubules and actin filaments spontaneously assemble in uncontrolled fashion within the cytoplasm?
- How does the cell control the location (and orientation) of new actin filaments or microtubules?
- What does "dynamic instability" mean?
- Understand how the following drugs work on microtubules: Taxol, Colchicine, Vinblastine & Vincristine.
- Can you describe serveral different types of actin binding proteins?
- Clinical correlation: Kartegener's syndrome - what is the molecular basis of this disease and why does it cause male sterility and respiratory infections?
- Understand basic axoneme structure and function.
- What is a basal body? How would you recognize it in the TEM?
- What is a centriole? What is a centrosome? What is gamma-tubulin and what does it do?
- Can you describe the mitotic spindle including the orientation of microtubules and the position and roles of the motor proteins kinesin and dynein?
- How did intermediate filaments get their name? Are they polar? Do they have associated motors?
- What is the molecular basis of epidermolysis bullosa symplex? Explain how this causes the symptoms seen in patients.
Cells & Organelles IV
- Can you describe the basic structure of the eucaryotic cell nucleus including the nuclear envelope, heterochromatin, euchromatin, nuclear lamina, nuclear pores, nucleolus?
- How is DNA organized in chromatin? What is a nucleosome? What are chromosomal scaffolding proteins?
- What is a Barr body?
- What happens in the nucleolus?
- What does a nuclear pore do? What does a nuclear pore look like? Are nuclear pores involved in energy-dependent transport - i.e. moving things against a concentration gradient?
- Understand the basic stages in the cell cycle - what happens in each stage.
- What are the "check points" in the cell cycle?
- What are the stages of normal mitosis? - review textbook section on cell division.
- What is a centromere?
- Compare and contrast necrotic and apoptotic cell death.