Cell and Tissue Biology

Progress Exam I Study Guide

The exam will have 30 questions including multiple choice and perhaps a few short answer items. It covers the material up to and including cells & organelles IV. There will be images on this exam.

This review sheet is organized by lecture. If you go through and answer the various questions that I list below, you should be in good shape for the exam.

Formed Elements of Blood

  • List basic functions of blood.
  • Know the RELATIVE abundance of the different types of leukocytes.
  • Know the basic structure/function of the erythrocyte.
    • What is the membrane skeleton? What does it do? What molecular defect leads to Hereditary Spherocytosis?
    • What is the molecular basis of sickle cell disease? How does this lead to the clinical symptoms seen in patients?
  • Make a table of leukocytes with columns: size, basic function (including any key molecular effectors, mophological description (i.e. how do you recognize this cell in a blood smear?)
  • What is diapedesis? Which adhesion molecules are involved?
  • What are the basic functions of platelets? Where do platelets come from?

Cells & Organelles I & II

  • Plasma membrane
    • Basic structure: understand fluid mosaic model, various types of membrane proteins & glycocalyx
    • Learn the basic functions of: membranes, different types of membrane proteins & the glycocalyx.
    • What are "membrane domains" & what role do occluding junctions play in their maintainance?
    • Can you explain how is glucose transported across the gut epithelium?
    • Cell signaling: Understand how the basic way that heterotrimeric G proteins work (lecture notes, cells & organelles I).
  • Membrane-bound organelles
    • Understand endocytosis (and phagocytosis)
      • Can you describe receptor mediated endocytosis via clathrin coated pits?
      • How might a defect in receptor-mediated endocytosis be related to high levels of LDL in the blood and early death from atherosclerosis?
    • Mitochondria structure & function
      • What is the role of the inner membrane?
      • What happens in the matrix space?
      • Mitochondrial genome - understand the maternal inheritance of mitochondrial diseases.
      • How are new mitochondria produced and how does this relate to their evolutionary origin?
      • Where are mitochondria usually located in cells? Why? Can you provide a few examples?
      • Where are most mitochondrial proteins encoded? Where are most mitochondrial proteins translated?
    • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
      • Understand the signal hypothesis.
      • What are the major functions of the RER?
    • Golgi apparatus - understand the major functions: review textbook page 52 figure 2.35, and lecture notes, cells & organelles II.
    • Lysosomes
      • What are primary and secondary lysosomes?
      • What is the role of pH in lysososme function?
      • What are autophagosomes? How can you distinguish them from lysosomes in the TEM?
      • Clinical correlation:
        • Understand the concept of lysosomal storage diseases.
        • Recognize the names of the following lysosomal storage diseases: Hurler, Tay-Sachs, Gaucher, I-cell disease
    • Peroxisomes
      • Understand their basic structure and function.
      • How are new proteins targeted to the peroxisome?
  • Proteosomes - what are they and what do they do?

Cells & Organelles III

  • What are the three major filament types of the cytoskeleton, and which of them are polor?
  • For polar filaments, what is the meaning of "+" and "-" end?
  • What are the names of the various "motor" proteins that move along cytoskeletal filaments? What filament does each motor move on? What direction does each motor go?
  • Why don't mictotubules and actin filaments spontaneously assemble in uncontrolled fashion within the cytoplasm?
  • How does the cell control the location (and orientation) of new actin filaments or microtubules?
  • What does "dynamic instability" mean?
  • Understand how the following drugs work on microtubules: Taxol, Colchicine, Vinblastine & Vincristine.
  • Can you describe serveral different types of actin binding proteins?
  • Clinical correlation: Kartegener's syndrome - what is the molecular basis of this disease and why does it cause male sterility and respiratory infections?
  • Understand basic axoneme structure and function.
  • What is a basal body? How would you recognize it in the TEM?
  • What is a centriole? What is a centrosome? What is gamma-tubulin and what does it do?
  • Can you describe the mitotic spindle including the orientation of microtubules and the position and roles of the motor proteins kinesin and dynein?
  • How did intermediate filaments get their name? Are they polar? Do they have associated motors?
  • What is the molecular basis of epidermolysis bullosa symplex? Explain how this causes the symptoms seen in patients.

Cells & Organelles IV

  • Can you describe the basic structure of the eucaryotic cell nucleus including the nuclear envelope, heterochromatin, euchromatin, nuclear lamina, nuclear pores, nucleolus?
  • How is DNA organized in chromatin? What is a nucleosome? What are chromosomal scaffolding proteins?
  • What is a Barr body?
  • What happens in the nucleolus?
  • What does a nuclear pore do? What does a nuclear pore look like? Are nuclear pores involved in energy-dependent transport - i.e. moving things against a concentration gradient?
  • Understand the basic stages in the cell cycle - what happens in each stage.
  • What are the "check points" in the cell cycle?
  • What are the stages of normal mitosis? - review textbook section on cell division.
  • What is a centromere?
  • Compare and contrast necrotic and apoptotic cell death.