Cell and Tissue Biology

CTB II Study Guide for Final Exam (2017)

The CTB II Final Exam is comphrehensive. It will contain 85 items, because 15 items originally on the progress exam were moved to the final exam. Thus, because the final is comprehensive and comparative, there will be an over representation of some areas. The final exam will cover the entire CTB II course, with the exception of the details covered exclusively in the "Clinical Case" presentations that you made in lab. Below is the APPROXIMATE breakdown of items by subject area for the Final Exam. Some questions span more than one subject area, and are therefore classified as comparative. Liver and GI will be covered but mostly by comparison to other organs.

Below is the APPROXIMATE breakdown of items by subject area for the Final Exam. Some questions span more than one subject area. Approximately 60-70% will be subject material presented after the progress exam.
Subject# of items
Male reproduction 9
Female reproduction 9
Placenta 5
Neurocytology 8
Ear 4
Eye 5
Endocrine10
Urinary system11
Endocrine10
Comparative24

All of the items will refer to one or more micrographs. Items with micrographs often require identification of an object AND knowledge of associated functions that were presented in lecture and reading assignments. Some questions will require the comparison of organs; i.e., which of the following is liver? Which of the following is thyroid? There is also the possibility of some electron micrographs and immunohistochemical staining, if they were shown in lecture. Low magnification along with higher magnification photos will be used as needed for illustration.

Exam Preparation
Below is an "object list" that you can use to help prepare for the exam. Learning Objectives were provided with each lecture. We always attempt to make these lists comprehensive, but it is still your responsibility to study the lectures, slides, discussions and to make all identifications requested in lab, as well as to refer to the textbook for added explanations.

How you might want to use this list:

1) Go through the list the first time quickly to make sure that you recognize each term and are familiar with each object name.

2) On your second time through the list make sure that you can recognize each item in a micrograph (LM or EM, as appropriate) from the lab/lecture/textbook/virtual slides.

3) On your third pass confirm that you know the function of each object. Remember that you can use the Atlas "Object" index or "Search" feature to rapidly find labeled micrographs and brief functional summaries for most if not all of the items on the list.

4) On your fourth and final pass review all lecture, textbook and lab information related to each item on the list. You might tackle the fourth pass by dividing the list between members of a study group.

The first three passes through the list will prepare you for many of the exam questions. The fourth pass will prepare you for the more difficult questions. Also, don't forget to review the practice quizzes associated with the labs!

Some final advice: it is important that you integrate structure and function as you prepare. You will need to identify structures and also know their functions to do well on this exam. There will be a range of question difficulty. A few easy questions will require simple identifications. Average questions will require both identification and some general functional knowledge. The more difficult questions will require identification and knowledge of functionally relevant details covered in class, lab, or in the assigned reading. The functional details that I will ask you about will have been covered in the reading assignments and most likely emphasized in lecture. Information that appears only in the textbook and was never referred to in class or lab will not be emphasized in this exam.

OBJECT TERM LISTS FOR CTB II

Liver
portal triad
hepatic portal vein
hepatic artery branch
bile ductules/ducts
lymphatic vessel
sinusoidal endothelium
space of Disse
central venule (vein)
hepatic vein
hepatocyte
polyploid & diploid hepatocytes
binucleate
Kupffer cell
hepatic stellate cell (Ito)
rER
peroxisome
glycogen
bile
bile canaliculus (..culi)
Canal of Hering
Cholangiocytes
classical hepatic lobule
portal lobule
hepatic acinus lobule
gallbladder epithelium
lamina propria/submucosa

Pancreas
pancreatic acinus
lobule
septa
zymogen granules
protrypsin
centroacinar cell
intercalated duct
bicarbonate
intralobular and interlobular ducts
pancreatic duct
Islets of Langerhans
peptide hormones

Oral Cavity

Tongue
skeletal muscle
stratified squamous epithelium
mucosa
Lingual papillae
Filiform
Foliate
Fungiform
Circumvallate
sulcus
taste bud
taste pore
support cell
sensory cell
basal cell
serous gland

Tooth
enamel
dentin
cementum
gingival sulcus
periodontal ligament
alveolar bone
dental pulp
enamel organ
ameloblasts
odontoblasts

Salivary glands
Tubuloacinar glands
parotid
sublingual and submandibular glands
mixed salivary glands
serous
mucous
mixed acinus
zymogen granules
acinus
serous demilune
myoepithelial
intercalated duct
striated duct
intralobular and interlobular ducts
Septa

Esophagus
Tubular organs
mucosa
epithelium
lamina propria/submucosa
muscularis mucosa
muscularis externa
adventitia
Nerve plexus
esophageal mucosa
submucosa
submucosal mucous glands
skeletal versus smooth muscle externa
esophageal mucosal cardiac glands

Gastrointestinal system
enteroendocrine cells
epithelium
mucosa
lamina propria
submucosa
muscularis mucosa
muscularis externa
adventitia

Stomach
cardiac
fundic and pyloric stomach
gastric pits
parietal and chief cells of stomach
mucous surface cells
neck cells
stem cells
isthmus
neck
fundus
enteroendocrine cells
gastrin
somatostatin
intrinsic factor
zymogen granules
pepsinogen
muscularis mucosa
muscularis externa
adventitia

Duodenum/Jejunum
villi
lacteal lymphatic capillary
crypts of Lieberkuhn
absorptive cell (enterocyte)
microvilli
intraepithelial lymphocyte
goblet cell
stem cell
enteroendocrine cell
Paneth cell
lysozyme
lamina propria
submucosa
Brunner's glands
Meissner's and Myenteric nerve plexi

Ileum
Absorptive cells
Crypts of Lieberkuhn
Peyer's patch
M-cells
Immune cells
lymphatic nodules
germinal centers
plasma cells of lamina propria
appendix

Colon
Mucosa
Crypts of Lieberkuhn
Submucosa
Muscularis
mucous cells
absorptive cells
tubular gland
Meissner's and Myenteric nerve plexi

Endocrine glands
Endocrine gland organization
classes of hormones and cellular features

Thyroid gland
follicular cell
thyroglobulin
thyroperoxidase
colloid
parafollicular (C-cell)
calcitonin

Parathyroid gland
chief cell
parathyroid hormone
oxyphil cell

Adrenal gland
capsule
cortex
zona glomerulosa
mineralocorticoids
zona fasciculate
glucocorticoids
zona reticularis
weak androgens
medulla
chromaffin cells
catecholamines
fenestrated sinusoidal capillaries
medullary artery
adrenomedullary vein
steroid producing cells

Hypothalamus/hypophysis/pineal
Gross anatomical organization hypothalamus
optic chiasma
hypophysis (pituitary)
and hypothalamohypophyseal system

Adenohypophysis
pars distalis
pars tuberalis
pars intermedia
Colloid Cysts
chromophobes
acidophils
basophils
hormones associated with pars distalis

Neurohypophysis
pars nervosa
Infundibulum (neurostalk)
median eminence
nerve axon fibers
Herring bodies
pituicytes
fenestrated capillaries
hormones of posterior pituitary

Pineal gland
pinealocytes
melatonin
astrocytes
calcium brain sand

Urinary System

Kidney
hilus
cortex
medulla
papilla
pelvis
calyx
pyramid
medullary ray
nephron
cortical nephron
juxtamedullary nephron
afferent and efferent arterioles
renal corpuscle
glomerulus
filtration basal lamina
Bowman's capsule
vascular and urinary poles
urinary space
Podocyte
pedicels
filtration slits
filtration
mesangial cells
capillary fenestrations
PAS stain of glomerulus
proximal and distal convoluted tubules
brush border and basal mitochondria of proximal convoluted tubules
reabsorption of protein/peptides/sugars
Proximal straight tubules
Distal straight tubules
thin descending loop
thick ascending loop of Henle
Macula densa
juxtaglomerular apparatus
control of blood pressure
collecting tubules and ducts
ADH and water
podocyte
arcuate and interlobular arteries and veins
peritubular plexus
vasa recta
arcuate and interlobular arteries and veins
transitional epithelium
membrane plaques

Ureter/Urinary bladder
Transitional epithelium
Binucleate
Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis

Urethra
Transitional epithelium
Binucleate
Mucosa
Submucosa
Vascular sinusoids
Muscularis
Urethral crest
proximal versus distal

Male reproductive system
Testis
Tunica albuginea
Rete testis
Seminiferous tubule
Interstitium
Sertoli cell
Leydig cell
Spermatogonia
mitosis
Spermatocyte
Meiotic division
Round spermatid
Elongated spermatid
Acrosomic system
spermatozoa
Efferent ductule
Ciliated cell
Nonciliated cell
Lysosomes
Caput epididymis
Cauda epididymis
Microvilli (stereocilia)
Principal cell
Basal cell
Apical cell
Luminal sperm
Smooth muscle layer
Vas deferens
Seminal vesicle
Mucosa
Prostate gland
Main versus submucosal prostate
Tubuloalveolar gland
Central urethra
Prostatic concretion

Female reproductive system
Ovary
Cortex and medulla
Mesothelium
Primordial follicle
Unilaminar and multilaminar follicle
Primary and secondary follicles
Antrum
Graafian follicle
Atretic follicle
Oocyte
Oocyte nucleus versus cytoplasm
Zona pellucida
Theca cells
Granulosa cells
Corona radiata
Cumulus oophorus
Corpus luteum
Regressing follicle
Atretic follicle
Thecal and granulosa lutein cells
Interstitial cells of stroma
Oviduct
Fimbria, infundibulum, ampulla
Ciliated versus secretory cells
Mucosal folds
Uterus
Uterine glands and mucosa
Phases of endometrial cycle
Spiral arteries
Endometrium
Functionalis
Basalis
Stroma and mucosa
Myometrium
Cervix and Papanicolaou stain
Vagina epithelium
Mammary gland alveolus
Fat cells versus alveolus
Lipid vacuoles
Immune cells in milk
Mammary ducts

Placenta
Maternal versus fetal blood
Synchtiotrophoblast
Cytotrophoblast
Placental blood barrier
Chorionic plate
Villus
Chorionic villi
Decidual cells
Decidua basalis
Decidua parietalis
Fibrinoid layer

Neurocytology
Neuron
Axon
Nucleus
Nucleolus
axon hillock
perikaryon
Nissl body
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
mitochondrion
dendrite
Neurofilaments
Microtubules
Golgi
Lipofuscin
synapse
Neuroglial cells
Astrocyte
Oligodendrocyte
Microglial cell
Ependymal cell
Myelinated axon
Unmyelinated
Neuropil
Myelin
Gray versus white matter
Cerebellum
Purkinje cells
Dendrite area
Granular small neurons
Molecular versus granular layers
Cerebrum
Choroid plexus epithelium
Peripheral nerve ganglia
Associated nerve tracts
Schwann cell
Node of Ranvier
Schmidt-Lantermann incisures
Epineurium, perineurium, endoneurium
Meissner's ganglia
Myenteric ganglia
Sensory receptors
taste buds
taste pore
Gustatory cell
muscle spindle
Meissner's corpuscle
Pacinian (Lamellar) corpuscles

Ear
Ceruminous gland
Tympanic membrane
Ossicles
Cochlea
Scala vestibuli & tympani
Scala media
Vestibular membrane
Modiolus
Basilar membrane
Stria vascularis
Organ of Corti
Tectorial membrane
Hair cells
Support cells
Phalangeal cells
Cochlear nerve
Spiral ganglion
Spiral ligament
Semicircular canals
Ampulla
Cupula
Macula
Otoliths
Sensory hair cells

Eye
Cornea
Corneal epithelium
Corneal collagen
Descemet's membrane
Corneal endothelium
Sclera
Conjunctiva
Stem cell area
Ciliary body
Ciliary processes
Ciliary muscle
Limbus area
Iridocorneal angle
Area of canal of Schlemm
Trabecular meshwork
Iris
Melanocytes
Aqueous humor production and resorption
Pupillae muscle
Pupil
Lens
Subcapsular epithelium
Bowman's membrane
Lens fibers and germinal zone
Zonule suspensory fibers
Vitreaous cavity
Choroid
Area with more rods
Area with more cones
Retinal layers: ganglion, bipolar neuron nuclei
Retinal layers: photoreceptor nuclei, photoreceptor disks
Retinal layer: retinal pigment epithelium
Muller cells
Ganglion cells
Fovea
Optic nerve