Cell and Tissue Biology

CTB II Progress Exam Study Guide 2016

The CTB II first exam will focus only on the specific topics listed and will contain 30 items. Each question will have an associated histology photo for reference and orientation; therefore, although the primary focus will be lecture material, all laboratory study will be of considerable benefit to providing you with an understanding of histology.

Below is the APPROXIMATE breakdown of items by subject area for the Progress Exam. Some questions span more than one subject area.

Subject# of items
Liver/Gallbladder/Pancreas/Salivary 5
Oral cavity through stomach 5
Intestines 5
Endocrine system 9
Urinary system 6

Exam Preparation

A Learning Objectives list and Objects list are provided for you use in preparing for the exam. There is always an attempt to make these lists comprehensive, but it is still your responsibility to study the lectures, slides, discussions and to make all identifications requested in lab, as well as to refer to the textbook for added explanations.

The following is recommended for mastering histology by using the objects list:
1. Go through the list the first time quickly to make sure that you recognize each term and are familiar with each name.
2. Go through the list a second time, but this time make sure you can image the structure in your mind. If you cannot see the structure in your mind or are unsure, look up that structure in a textbook, lecture slide, or the virtual slides. Then repeat this exercise until you see the structure in your mind.
3. Go through the list a third time and write or state the function of each object term, especially in relation to the morphology.
4. Make a final review of all lecture notes and read the textbook where appropriate to fill in the finer details. This last effort will help with the few questions that are meant to challenge your reasoning abilities.

Exocrine Glands: Liver, Pancreas, Gallbladder, Salivary

Learning Objectives

1. Identify and discuss the basic histological organization of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas; correlate function with histological structures
2. Identify and define the following histological terms: hepatic cords; central vein (venule), portal triad, periportal limiting plate, hepatic portal vein (venules), hepatic artery (arteriole), bile duct, lymphatic vessel, liver sinusoids, sinusoidal endothelium, classical hepatic lobule, portal lobule, hepatic acinus, hepatocyte, polyploid hepatocyte, binucleate hepatocyte, Kupffer cell, hepatic stellate (Ito) cell, glycogen, rough endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisome, space of Disse, bile canaliculus, duct of Herring, bile, gallbladder epithelium, Islets of Langerhans, pancreatic lobule, septa, pancreatic acinus, zymogen granules, centroacinar cell, intercalated duct, intralobular and interlobular ducts, pancreatic duct
3. Understand the flow of blood into and out of the liver and identify the morphological structures involved in this physiological activity
4. Understand the organization and morphology of the portal triad.
5. Understand the concepts of the classical hepatic lobule, portal lobule and hepatic acinus (sometimes called Acinus of Rappaport) and recognize their locations within the liver and the structures making up their regions of the liver.
6. Understand the basic structure and function of cells of the liver: hepatocyte, polyploid hepatocyte, binucleate hepatocyte, stem cell, Kupffer cell, hepatic stellate cell, endothelial cell
7. Discuss the production of bile and the cellular structures involved in getting bile to the duodenum.
8. Identify the histological features of the gallbladder
9. Identify, understand and discuss the production of exocrine secretions by the pancreas; the cell types involved, their histology and relationship to the pancreatic acinus, intercalated duct, lobule, and ductal system.
10. Identify, understand and discuss the Islets of Langerhans endocrine cells of the pancreas.

Terms List

hepatic cords
central vein (venule)
Stem cells
liver sinusoids
sinusoidal endothelium
classical hepatic lobule
hepatocyte
polyploid hepatocyte
binucleate hepatocyte
Kupffer cell
portal triad
periportal limiting plate
hepatic portal vein (venules)
hepatic artery (arteriole)
bile canaliculus
bile duct
lymphatic vessel
gallbladder epithelium
pancreatic lobule
septa
Islets of Langerhans
pancreatic acinus
zymogen granules
centroacinar cell
intercalated duct
intralobular and interlobular ducts
pancreatic duct
serous, mucous and mixed salivary glands
zymogen granules
serous demilune
Myoepithelial cells
Intercalated duct
striated duct
intralobular and interlobular ducts

Oral Cavity through Stomach

Learning Objectives

1. Identify histologically and understand the following terms: tongue filiform and circumvallate papillae, taste bud, tooth enamel, dentin, cementum, dental pulp.
2. Identify and describe the basic structure of taste bud.
3. Identify and understand tooth development; enamel organ, ameloblasts, odontoblasts.
4. Discuss which cells in the adult would need to be replaced by stem cells to grow a new tooth.
5. Identify histologically and understand the following terms: mucosa, epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, adventitia, serosa. Apply these terms to the gastrointestinal tract.
6. Identify histologically and understand the layers of the following: fundic and pyloric stomach, small and large intestine.
7. Identify histologically and understand the function associated with and location of the following terms: gastric pits, parietal and chief cells of stomach, mucous surface and mucous neck cell and stem cell area, enteroendocrine cells, parietal canaliculus.
8. Understand the cells and secretions that fail when Helicobacter pylori bacteria induce ulceration.
9. Understand and explain why cells stain blue with hematoxylin and pink with eosin.
10. Correlate histological organization with function of the gastrointestinal regions.
11. Compare epithelia, mucosa and submucosa along the gastrointestinal tract.
12. Identify and discuss where glands are found in the gastrointestinal tract.

Terms List

Tongue papillae
taste bud
tooth enamel, dentin, cementum, dental pulp
Ameloblasts
Odontoblasts
Mucosa, epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa
Submucosa, muscularis externa, adventitia
Esophageal mucosa
Esophagus submucosal glands
Esophagus muscularis externa (type of cells)
Stomach: cardiac, fundic and pyloric
Stomach mucosa, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa
Stomach submucosa and muscularis externa
gastric pits, Isthmus, Neck and Body
parietal cells and chief cells
parietal canaliculus
enteroendocrine cells
mucous surface cells
neck cell and stem cell locations

Intestines

Learning Objectives

1. Identify histologically and understand the following terms: mucosa, epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, adventitia, serosa. Apply these terms to the gastrointestinal tract.
2. Identify histologically and understand the layers of the following: small and large intestines.
3. Identify histologically and understand the function associated with and location of the following terms: villi, crypts of Lieberkuhn, absorptive cell (enterocyte), microvilli, goblet cell, stem cells, Paneth cells, smooth muscle cells, Brunner's glands, mucous versus serous cells, Meissner's submucosal and Myenteric nerve plexi, macrophages, Peyer's patch, lymphatic nodules, intraepithelial T-lymphocytes, plasma cells of lamina propria, lacteals, M-cells (Microfold-cells), dendritic cells, lymphoblast cells.
4. Understand and explain why cells stain blue with hematoxylin and pink with eosin.
5. Correlate histological organization with function of the gastrointestinal regions.
6. Compare epithelia, mucosa and submucosa along the gastrointestinal tract.
7. Identify and discuss where glands are found in the gastrointestinal tract.

Terms List

Villi and epithelium (Duodenum, ileum, cecum, jejunum, colon)
Mucosa, muscularis mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa
Absorptive cell (enterocyte), microvilli, terminal web, tight junction
Goblet cell
Crypts of Lieberk├╝hn, stem cells, and Paneth cell
Enteroendocrine cells
Intraepithelial lymphocyte (T-cells)
Lamina propria
Plasma cells, macrophages, smooth muscle, lacteals
Brunner's glands
Meissner's submucosal plexus
Myenteric nerve plexus
Peyer's patch, lymphatic nodules
M-cells (Microfold-cells)
M-cell pocket of dendritic cells, lymphocytes and macrophages
Cecum (appendix like) organization and cells
Colon mucosa and submucosa
Colon mucous or goblet cells, absorptive cells

Endocrine glands - Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Hypothalamus, Hypophysis and Pineal

Learning Objectives

1. Understand endocrine gland organization: discrete organs or portions of organs
2. Understand classes of hormones and features of the cells that produce them
3. Understand thyroid follicle epithelium and morphological changes associated with function
4. Identify histologically and understand follicular cells of thyroid hormone synthesis, storage and mobilization; parafollicular C-cell location, morphology and function
5. Understand parathyroid gland structure, cell types (Chief and Oxyphil) and functions
6. Identify histologically and understand the organization and related functions of the adrenal gland zones
7. Understand blood supply to the adrenal gland
8. Identify major hormones released from the adrenal gland zones
9. Identify histologically and understand the ultrastructure of steroid producing cells
10. Identify the Chromaffin cell and its function in the adrenal medulla
11. Understand gross anatomical organization of the hypothalamus, optic chiasma, hypophysis (pituitary), and hypothalamohypophyseal system
12. Know the organization of the pituitary: neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis
13. Know the major divisions of the neurophypophysis (posterior pituitary): Pars nervosa, Infundibulum (neurostalk), Median eminence
14. Know the major divisions of the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary): pars distalis, pars tuberalis, pars intermedia
15. Understand the major cell types of the pituitary; their locations; hormones and target organs; how to recognize
16. Understand histological differences between posterior and anterior pituitary
17. Nerve fibers, pituicytes and Herring bodies versus
18. High vascularity, irregular cords or epithelial endocrine cells
19. Understand accumulation of peptide hormones in axon terminals of the neurohypophysis

Terms List

Endocrine glands

Endocrine gland organization
Classes of hormones and cellular features
Thyroid gland
follicular cell
thyroglobulin producing
thyroperoxidase
colloid
parafollicular (C-cell)
calcitonin producing

Parathyroid gland
chief cell
parathyroid hormone producinh
oxyphil cell

Adrenal gland
capsule
cortex
zona glomerulosa
mineralocorticoid producing
zona fasciculate
glucocorticoid producing
zona reticularis
weak androgen producing
medulla
chromaffin cells
catecholamine producing
fenestrated sinusoidal capillaries
medullary artery
adrenomedullary vein
steroid producing cells

Hypothalamus/hypophysis/pineal
Gross anatomical organization hypothalamus
hypophysis (pituitary)
and hypothalamohypophyseal system
Adenohypophysis
pars distalis
pars tuberalis
pars intermedia
Colloid Cysts
chromophobes
acidophils
basophils
hormones associated with pars distalis
Neurohypophysis
pars nervosa
Infundibulum (neurostalk)
nerve axon fibers
Herring bodies
pituicytes
fenestrated capillaries
hormones of posterior pituitary

Pineal gland
pinealocytes
melatonin producing
astrocytes
calcium brain sand

Urinary System

Learning Objectives

1. Identify histologically and understand the following terms: kidney hilus, cortex, medulla, papilla, pelvis, calyx, pyramid, medullary ray, arcuate and interlobular arteries and veins, peritubular plexus, vasa recta, arcuate and interlobular arteries and veins, nephron, cortical nephron (short loop), juxtamedullary nephron (long loop), afferent and efferent arterioles, renal corpuscle, glomerulus, filtration basal lamina, Bowman's capsule, vascular and urinary poles, urinary space, Podocyte, pedicels, filtration slits, mesangial cells, capillary fenestrations, PAS stain of glomerulus, proximal and distal convoluted tubules, brush border and basal mitochondria of proximal convoluted tubules, proximal straight (thick descending limb) and distal straight (thick ascending limb) tubules, thin loop of Henle, Macula densa, juxtaglomerular apparatus, collecting tubules and ducts, transitional epithelium, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra (proximal versus distal).
2. Identify and describe the renal histological structures responsible for the following: a) filtration of blood plasma; b) reabsorption of 70% of the water; c) reabsorption of protein, peptides and sugars; d) removal of water from the cortex; e) active transport of sodium; f) Juxtaglomerular apparatus control of blood pressure; i) ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) control of water reabsorption.
3. Distinguish histological differences between urethra, urinary bladder and ureter.
4. Proximal smooth versus distal 1/3 skeletal muscle of urethra
5. Trace a water molecule through the kidney starting in the renal artery and ending in the ureter; select a pathway depending upon whether it is a superficial nephron or a juxtamedullary nephron.
6. Trace a water molecule through the kidney starting in the renal artery and ending in the renal vein, having gone through the proximal convoluted tubule of a juxtamedullary nephron

Terms List

Kidney
hilus
cortex
medulla
papilla
pelvis
calyx
pyramid
medullary ray
nephron
cortical nephron
juxtamedullary nephron
afferent and efferent arterioles
renal corpuscle
glomerulus
filtration basal lamina
Bowman's capsule
vascular and urinary poles
urinary space
Podocyte
pedicels
filtration slits
filtration
mesangial cells
capillary fenestrations
PAS stain of glomerulus
proximal and distal convoluted tubules
brush border and basal mitochondria of proximal convoluted tubules
reabsorption of protein/peptides/sugars
Proximal straight tubules
Distal straight tubules
thin descending loop
thick ascending loop of Henle
Macula densa
juxtaglomerular apparatus
control of blood pressure
collecting tubules and ducts
ADH and water
podocyte
arcuate and interlobular arteries and veins
peritubular plexus
vasa recta
arcuate and interlobular arteries and veins
transitional epithelium
membrane plaques
Ureter/Urinary bladder
Transitional epithelium
Binucleate
Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis
Urethra
Transitional epithelium
Binucleate
Mucosa
Submucosa
Vascular sinusoids
Muscularis
Urethral crest
proximal versus distal