CTB I Comphrehensive Final Exam Study Guide
The CTB I Final Exam is comphrehensive. It will contain 70 (or perhaps 71) items that cover the entire CTB I course, with the exception of
the details covered exclusively in the "Clinical Case" presentations by you and your peers.
Below is the APPROXIMATE breakdown of items by subject area. Some questions span more than one subject area.
|Subject||# of items|
|cells & organellEs|| ~12|
|bone & cartilage|| ~6|
About half of the items refer to one or more micrographs.
Items with micrographs often require identification of an object AND knowledge of associated functional material that was presented in lecture and reading assignments.
Below is an "object list" that you can use to help prepare for the exam.
How you might want to use this list:
1) Go through the list the first time quickly to make sure that you
recognize and are familiar with each of the object names.
2) On your second time through the list make sure that you can
recognize each item in a micrograph (LM or EM, as appropriate) from the lab/lecture/textbook/virtual slides.
3) On your third pass confirm that you know the function of each object.
Remember that you can use the Atlas "Object" index or "Search" feature to rapidly find labeled
micrographs and brief functional summaries for most if not all of the items on the list.
4) On your fourth and final pass review all lecture, textbook and lab information
related to each item on the list. You might want tackle the fourth pass by dividing the list
between members of a study group.
The first three passes thorugh the list will prepare you for many of the exam questions. The fourth pass will prepare you for
the more difficult questions.
Also, don't forget to review the practice quizzes associated with the labs!
Some final advice: it is important that you integrate structure and function as you prepare. You will need to identify
structures and also know their functions to do well on this exam.
There will be a range of question difficulty. A few easy questions will require simple identifications.
Average questions will require both identification and some general functional knowledge.
The more difficult questions will require identification and knowledge of functionally relevant details
covered in class, lab, or in the assigned reading. The functional details that I will ask you about will
have been covered in the reading assigments and mostl likely emphasized in lecture. Information that appears only in the textbook and
was never referred to in class or lab will NOT be emphasized in this exam.
red blood cells
Cells & Organelles
centriole (triplet microtubules)
rough endoplasmic reticulum
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
glycocalyx (on intestinal absorptive cell brush border)
intermediate filaments (e.g., keratin filaments in
clathrin coated pit/vesicle
mitotic figures (in crypts of Lieberkuhn, thymus,
Epithelium and Connective Tissue:
simple cuboidal epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
simple columnar epithelium
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
stratified cuboidal epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
goblet cell (+ secretory granules)
intestinal absorptive epithelial cells
mitotic figures in intestinal crypts
dense connective tissue
loose connective tissue
macrophages in loose connective tissue
lymphocytes in loose connective tissue
collagen fibers (in dense connective tissue)
pseudostrtatified columnar epithelium
cilia (cross section, longitudinal section, 9 + 2)
neutrophils in loose connective tissue
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
adipocytes (fat cells)
myoepithelial cells (sweat glands)
Lymphoid tissue and Skin:
lymphocytes in the thymic cortex
epithelial reticular cells of the thymic cortex
macrophage of the thymic cortex
lymphocyte mitotic figues, thymic cortex
lymph node cotex
lymph node medulla
type III collagen (reticular) fibers (silver stain)
high endothelial cell post-capillary venules
primary and secondary lymph nodule in lymph node
lymphocytes in lymph node
lymphatic vessel with valve
sinusoids of lymph node medulla
lymph node capsule
lymph node subcapsular sinus
lymph nodule in appendix
splenic capsule with connective tissue trabeculae
spleen, red pulp, sinusoids, white pulp
spleenic central artery with lymphocyte sheath
splenic sinuses, spindle shaped endothelial cells
desquamating cells of epidermal keratinized stratified
hair follicle, papilla
hypodermis (with adipocytes)
Muscle and Cardiovascular System:
cardiac muscle cells
cardiac muscle cell nucleus
perimysium (not paramecium or paramyosin...)
myotendenous junction (from atlas and lecture slides)
smooth muscle cell dense bodies (from lecture slides)
elastic artery (aorta)
elastic lamellae of elastic artery media
smooth muscle in media of elastic artery, muscular
endothelial cells, endothelial cell nuclei
skeletal muscle cell
lymphatic valve (leaflets)
capillaries (continuous, fenestrated - TEM's from
sinusoids (from atlas and lecture slides)
respiratory epithelium (ciliated cells, goblet cells,
elastic fibers (in broncus mucosa)
olfactory receptor cells (olfactory knobs, modified cilia
from lecture slides)
olfactory epithelium supporting cells (sustentacular
olfactory epithelium basal cells
Bowman's glands, ducts
hyaline cartilage (matrix, chondrocytes, lacunae)
alveoli (air space, septum)
pore of Kohn (alveolar pore)
alveolar capillaries (endothelial cells, fused basa
lamina at air/blood interface)
type I alveolar cell (=type I pneumonocyte)
type II alverolar cell w/secretory granules containing
bronchus, (smooth muscle, elastic fibers)
Cartilage and Bone:
hyaline cartilage without perichondrium at articular
compact (cortical) bone
cancellous (trabecular, spongy) bone
Haversian unit (osteon)
lamellae of bone
trabecula of bone
osteocyte lacunae and canaliculli in ground specimens
intramembranous bone collar, developing bone
Howship's lacunae (from lecture slides)
endochondrial bone formation (cartilage model,
interstitially growing cartilage, hypertrophic cartilage,