Cell and Tissue Biology

CTB I Comphrehensive Final Exam Study Guide

The CTB I Final Exam is comphrehensive. It will contain 70 (or perhaps 71) items that cover the entire CTB I course, with the exception of the details covered exclusively in the "Clinical Case" presentations by you and your peers.

Below is the APPROXIMATE breakdown of items by subject area. Some questions span more than one subject area.
Subject# of items
Blood~5
cells & organellEs ~12
connective/fat ~6
bone & cartilage ~6
epithelium ~7
respiratory ~7
skin/td> ~6
cardiovascular~7
lymphoid ~8
muscle ~6

About half of the items refer to one or more micrographs.

Items with micrographs often require identification of an object AND knowledge of associated functional material that was presented in lecture and reading assignments.

Exam Preparation
Below is an "object list" that you can use to help prepare for the exam.

How you might want to use this list:

1) Go through the list the first time quickly to make sure that you recognize and are familiar with each of the object names.

2) On your second time through the list make sure that you can recognize each item in a micrograph (LM or EM, as appropriate) from the lab/lecture/textbook/virtual slides.

3) On your third pass confirm that you know the function of each object.

Remember that you can use the Atlas "Object" index or "Search" feature to rapidly find labeled micrographs and brief functional summaries for most if not all of the items on the list.

4) On your fourth and final pass review all lecture, textbook and lab information related to each item on the list. You might want tackle the fourth pass by dividing the list between members of a study group.

The first three passes thorugh the list will prepare you for many of the exam questions. The fourth pass will prepare you for the more difficult questions.

Also, don't forget to review the practice quizzes associated with the labs!

Some final advice: it is important that you integrate structure and function as you prepare. You will need to identify structures and also know their functions to do well on this exam. There will be a range of question difficulty. A few easy questions will require simple identifications. Average questions will require both identification and some general functional knowledge. The more difficult questions will require identification and knowledge of functionally relevant details covered in class, lab, or in the assigned reading. The functional details that I will ask you about will have been covered in the reading assigments and mostl likely emphasized in lecture. Information that appears only in the textbook and was never referred to in class or lab will NOT be emphasized in this exam.

Blood
red blood cells
lymphocytes
eosinophil
basophil
neutrophil
platelets
megakaryocyte
monocytes

Cells & Organelles
neucleus
neucleolus
centriole (triplet microtubules)
Golgi
mitochondria (cristae)
microvilli
rough endoplasmic reticulum
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
cilia
basal bodies
lysosomes
free ribosomes
polysomes
euchromatin
heterochormatin
nuclear pore
nucleus
nuclear envelope
nucleolus
secretory granules
plasma membrane
basal lamina
brush border
glycocalyx (on intestinal absorptive cell brush border)
actin filaments
microtubules
intermediate filaments (e.g., keratin filaments in epidermis)
tight junction
desmosomes
clathrin coated pit/vesicle
hemidesmosomes
zonula adherens
mitotic figures (in crypts of Lieberkuhn, thymus, epidermis...)

Epithelium and Connective Tissue:
simple cuboidal epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
simple columnar epithelium
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
transitional epithelium
stratified cuboidal epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
mucosa
submucosa
basal lamina
brush border
goblet cell (+ secretory granules)
intestinal absorptive epithelial cells
mitotic figures in intestinal crypts
lamina propria
plasma cells
mast cells
dense connective tissue
loose connective tissue
macrophages in loose connective tissue
lymphocytes in loose connective tissue
hyaline cartilage
perichondrium
collagen fibers (in dense connective tissue)
pseudostrtatified columnar epithelium
cilia (cross section, longitudinal section, 9 + 2)
neutrophils in loose connective tissue
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
fibroblast
adipocytes (fat cells)
myoepithelial cells (sweat glands)

Lymphoid tissue and Skin:
thymus
thymic cortex
thymic lobule
lymphocytes in the thymic cortex
epithelial reticular cells of the thymic cortex
macrophage of the thymic cortex
lymphocyte mitotic figues, thymic cortex
thymic medulla
Hassall's corpuscles
lymph node
Peyer's patch
lymph node cotex
lymph node medulla
type III collagen (reticular) fibers (silver stain)
high endothelial cell post-capillary venules
primary and secondary lymph nodule in lymph node
lymphocytes in lymph node
germinal center
lymphatic vessel
lymphatic vessel with valve
sinusoids of lymph node medulla
lymph node capsule
lymph node subcapsular sinus
appendix
lymph nodule in appendix
spleen
splenic capsule with connective tissue trabeculae
spleen, red pulp, sinusoids, white pulp
spleenic central artery with lymphocyte sheath
splenic sinuses, spindle shaped endothelial cells
epidermis
desquamating cells of epidermal keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
dermis
Pacinian corpuscle
stratum basale
stratum spinosum
stratum lucidum
stratum granulosum
keratohyalin granules
sweat gland
myoepithelial cells
sebaceous glands
hair follicle, papilla
hypodermis (with adipocytes)

Muscle and Cardiovascular System:
cardiac muscle
skeletal muscle
smooth muscle
endocardium
myocardium
epicardium
cardiac muscle cells
cardiac muscle cell nucleus
intercalated disks
sarcomere
A-bands
I-bands
Z-lines
H-zone
endomysium
perimysium (not paramecium or paramyosin...)
epimysium
tendon
myotendenous junction (from atlas and lecture slides)
lipofuschin pigment
Purkinje fibers
smooth muscle cell dense bodies (from lecture slides)
elastic artery (aorta)
elastic lamellae of elastic artery media
smooth muscle in media of elastic artery, muscular artery, etc.
muscular artery
arteriole
tunica intima
endothelial cells, endothelial cell nuclei
tunica media
tunica adventitia
elastic lamina
skeletal muscle cell
vas vasorum
veins
venous valves
venules
lymphatics
lymphatic valve (leaflets)
capillaries (continuous, fenestrated - TEM's from lecture)
pericytes
sinusoids (from atlas and lecture slides)

Respiratory System:
olfactory epithelium
olfactory mucosa
respiratory epithelium (ciliated cells, goblet cells, basal cells)
elastic fibers (in broncus mucosa)
olfactory receptor cells (olfactory knobs, modified cilia from lecture slides)
olfactory epithelium supporting cells (sustentacular cells)
olfactory epithelium basal cells
Bowman's glands, ducts
epiglottis
hyaline cartilage (matrix, chondrocytes, lacunae)
perichondrium
vocal cords
thyro-arytenoid muscle
lung parenchyma
alveoli (air space, septum)
pore of Kohn (alveolar pore)
alveolar capillaries (endothelial cells, fused basa lamina at air/blood interface)
type I alveolar cell (=type I pneumonocyte)
type II alverolar cell w/secretory granules containing surfactant
respiratory bronchiole
bronchiole
air-blood barrier
terminal bronchiole
bronchus, (smooth muscle, elastic fibers)

Cartilage and Bone:
hyaline cartilage
perichondrium
chondrocytes
elastic cartilage
hyaline cartilage without perichondrium at articular suraces
compact (cortical) bone
cancellous (trabecular, spongy) bone
bone marrow
Haversian unit (osteon)
Haversian canal
lamellae of bone
trabecula of bone
interstitial lamellae
osteocytes
osteocyte lacunae and canaliculli in ground specimens
intramembranous bone
intramembranous bone collar, developing bone
osteoblasts
osteoclasts
periosteum
Howship's lacunae (from lecture slides)
endochondrial bone formation (cartilage model, interstitially growing cartilage, hypertrophic cartilage, calcifying cartilage...)