Cell and Tissue Biology

Welcome to the Cell and Tissue Biology home page!

This course explores microanatomy and the many fascinating links between form and function at the microscopic level. To be successful in the M2 pathology course, you must be able to recognize and understand the function of normal cells and tissues. This is the main objective of this course.

The major components of this course are: 1) textbook reading assignments ("Histology, A Text and Atlas, 6th Edition", by Ross and Pawlina), 2) web-based laboratory excercises, 3) lab meetings during which you will use microscopes to look at tissue sections and work together in small groups on clinical cases, and 4) course lectures.

You are expected to have completed the reading assignments BEFORE coming to lecture. Lectures will amplify and extend some of the material covered in the reading assigments.


Posted/Modified on Sunday March 15th:
The CTB II Practice Final Exam is now uploaded on the Exam website with clickable feedback. These are example questions. There is a mixture of simply identify the tissue, link function with the shown tissues, and a few more complicated questions such as asking what cell or tissue would be involved in a specific pathological change- of course specifically associated with what was taught in histology (see question 7). Good luck. Dr. H

Posted/Modified on Friday February 27th:
Dr. Hess has prepared "GUIDES TO THE VIRTUAL SLIDES" for labs 6 - 9. These PDF documents are now available on the "Labs" page of the CTB course web site. Scroll down and find them under the Lab 6, 7, 8 and 9 headings. The links are marked: "NEW", and include the words "GUIDE TO VIRTUAL SLIDES". There are two guides for labs 6 and 9. This is one guide each for labs 7 and 8.

Posted/Modified on Saturday February 21st:
The lab 9 objectives grid is available on the CTB course web site. Got to the "Labs" page and scroll down to Lab 9.

Posted/Modified on Tuesday February 17th:
The clinical cases and case assignment for the last CTB lab, lab 9, are now posted on the CTB web site. Go to the "Labs" page, then scroll down to the lab 9 section.

Posted/Modified on Wednesday February 11th:
The clinical Cases, case assignments, and the objective grid for lab 8 next week have just been posted.

Posted/Modified on Thursday January 15th:
I am certainly impressed with the natural curiosity of the M1 class this year. There have been some questions regarding the location of enteroendocrine cells. Dr. H.
Here are a few papers that might be of interest: Bohorquez DV, Samsa LA, Roholt A, Medicetty S, Chandra R and Liddle RA 2014. An enteroendocrine cell-enteric glia connection revealed by 3D electron microscopy. PLoS One 9(2): e89881. PMID: 24587096 Goll R and van Beelen Granlund A 2015. Intestinal barrier homeostasis in inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 50(1): 3-12. PMID: 25523551 Zhang WJ, Duan JZ, Lei N, Xing H, Shao Y and Yang GB 2012. Cellular bases for interactions between immunocytes and enteroendocrine cells in the intestinal mucosal barrier of rhesus macaques. Cell Tissue Res 350(1): 135-141. PMID: 22777742

Posted/Modified on Monday January 12th:
Due to the added lecture (GI II), the approximate question breakdown for the progress exam on Friday, February 6 has been modified slightly. Here is the adjusted breakdown by subject area:
Subject# of items
Liver/Gallbladder/Pancreas 4
Oral cavity/salivary/esophagus 3
GI-1 stomach 4
GI-2 Intestines 5
Endocrine 4
Hypothalamus/pineal 4
Urinary kidney to urethra 5

Posted/Modified on Sunday January 11th:
Power point slides for the added lecture on gastrointestinal tract are now posted. It was my opinion, supported by the Administration, that the added lecture time was necessary to adequately explain and illustrate cells and tissues of the GI and their interactions with the immune system.

Posted/Modified on Friday January 9th:
The TAs made very helpful lists of structures that you can find when looking at each of the virtual slides for lab 6. I've just posted these lists just below the link to each of the virtual slides, as they appear at the beginning of the lab 6 web exercise. Each list follows the word "Structures:" These lists should help you focus on the most important material, and not spend a lot of time trying to find objects that may not have good examples on a particular slide.

Posted/Modified on Friday January 9th:
One lecture has been added so that Dr. Rex Hess has enough time to cover the GI track and it's relationship with the immune system. The official calendar has already been updated.

Next week's lecture time are:
GI IITuesday Jan 139 am
EndocrineThursday Jan 158 am
Hypophysis - HypothalamusFriday Jan 168 am
Urinary SystemFriday Jan 169 am

Posted/Modified on Thursday January 8th:
Materials for lab 6, including case assignments, have been posted on the "Labs" page of this web site. Scroll down to lab 6.

Posted/Modified on Thursday January 8th:
Video tutorials for the virtual microscope slides can be found by clicking the links on the right that appear just under "Virtual Microscope". Choose either the laptop version or the tablet version, as appropriate.

Direct links below:

laptop tutorial

tablet tutorial

Posted/Modified on Monday January 5th:
Virtual slides:
Histology slides are viewed with a virtual microscope for CTBII. They are accessible by two methods on your homepage: 1) click on the virtual microscope link or 2) click on the link to each lab where some selected virtual slides will be listed at the top, prior to the Atlas section. The atlas uses photos from a different set of slides but the structures are still excellent for understanding histology and will help to explain structures you search for in the virtual slides. Short videos will be provided to explain how to utilize the virtual slide viewer.
1. It may help if you keep a copy of the “Objects List” printed out for reference while searching through the virtual slides.
2. Use Place Markers or Tags for your own reference and identifications.
3. Click the “Query” if you find it necessary to ask for help in making identifications. The Query button is found when you Edit the Marker. This will send an email to the TAs and Professors, who will answer as soon as possible. Please do not use the Query until you have tried all other resources because 100 queries could overwhelm our ability to keep up.
4. The virtual microscope works with iPads and cell phones, too. However, tagging with shapes only works well with the computer.
5. The same tissue appears quite different on different slides due to the results of alterations in fixation and staining. If you cannot find a structure on one slide, don’t waste a lot of time, simply go to another slide where it may be preserved with better fixation.

Posted/Modified on Monday January 5th:
Powerpoint Slides:
CTBII Lectures are for 50 minutes, which unfortunately is not an efficient manner in which to reveal all the facts needed for this course. The best that a professor can do is try to get your attention and then hopefully you will find the desire to complete the discovery process. Therefore, the Powerpoint slides will be split into “Lecture Notes” and “Outside study notes.” Hopefully we can complete the first part in class; however, regardless, we will stop after 50 minutes. You will be held responsible on exams for all powerpoint slides and associated virtual slides linked to your labs.

How should you study for CTBII?
One method is to use the listed object terms found on the Study Guide, which is listed on your Homepage under “Exams”. Histology is a visual language; therefore, try to visualize each of the objects and search the virtual slides until you can visualize them. Then you should link structure with function and dysfunction, as discussed in lecture, text and labs.

Posted/Modified on Monday January 5th:
CTB II Information Sources for Histology:
Textbook: "Histology, A Text and Atlas, 6th Ed." by Ross and Pawlina
Lecture notes and published powerpoint slides
Lab notes from the Web based Atlas (by Dr. Williams)
Armando Hasudungan: https://www.youtube.com/user/armandohasudungan?feature=watch
Khan Academy: http://www.khanacademy.org
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page (often a quick source for general information but not always 100% accurate)

Posted/Modified on Friday December 12th:

The second semester of Cell and Tissue Biology will be organized similar to the first semester. Lecture and lab materials will be made available online as they are completed. The first lecture is Jan. 6, 2015, 9am.

The study guide lists the structures to identify, define, and to describe their locations and functions. A few example questions will also be included. The Progress exam will be held Feb 6 and will cover everything through the Urinary System. All questions will be single best answer and may or may not have photomicrographs for identification. The final exam, March 20, will be comprehensive and comparative across all organs studied in the Spring semester. On the final exam, every question will be related to a photomicrograph of the tissues. A short practice exam will be arranged online prior to each exam.

The textbook "Histology, A Text and Atlas, 6th Edition", by Ross and Pawlina will be used as a supplement, which can be very helpful in providing explanations and backfilling information from the lectures. Lectures will provide the basis for the exams but the textbook will be able to provide far greater detail. Lectures will be 50 minutes; therefore, it may be necessary at times to simply end before completing all slides. The virtual slides used in the laboratory atlas will be used for photos included in the exams, because they provide better contrast for tissue recognition.

If you have any questions, please email: rexhess@illinois.edu. My cell phone number will be provided in class or by email. I look forward to working with you this semester and wish you the best. Rex A. Hess, PhD; Professor Emeritus, Dept. of Comparative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine.

©  1999 Benjamin D. Williams, Ph.D., Aulikki Kokko-Cunningham, M.D., Steven Cvetko, Ph.D, Richard Mintel, Ph.D., and the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. All rights reserved.