Cell and Tissue Biology

Welcome to the Cell and Tissue Biology home page!

This course explores microanatomy and the many fascinating links between form and function at the microscopic level. To be successful in the M2 pathology course, you must be able to recognize and understand the function of normal cells and tissues. This is the main objective of this course.

The major components of this course are: 1) textbook reading assignments ("Histology, A Text and Atlas, 7th Edition", Pawlina), 2) web-based laboratory excercises, 3) lab meetings during which you will use microscopes and virtual microscopy to look at tissue sections and work together in small groups on clinical cases, and 4) course lectures.

You are expected to have completed the reading assignments BEFORE coming to lecture. Lectures will amplify and extend some of the material covered in the reading assigments.


Posted/Modified on Wednesday March 16th:
A student has been brought to my attention that meiosis does not actually form a 4N cell in the pachytene spermatocyte, with 4 sets of the chromosomes, but rather 2 chromosomes and 2 copies. I did overlook this. Over the past few years, specialists in this area have changed how they deal with this and they now call these by a different terminology. At first I decided, in consultation with Dr. Williams, not to inform the entire class because it can be confusing, especially since your textbook uses a terminology that differs from that of Wikipedia. However, to keep everyone happy, I am posting the details. Your textbook uses the newer terminology of 2nx2d (d for DNA copies); thus, 2 sets of chromosomes (although 2 copies of the DNA), so the 4N terminology is outdated. Wikipedia uses the following: 2nx2c, the n being for the number of chromosomes and c being the DNA copies. Thus, as you can see, the terminology has changed and even today it is not entirely settled. If you have further questions on this, read the text page 89.

Posted/Modified on Saturday March 5th:
The Final Exam will be identical to the Progress exam in style and mixture of question types, with a photo/s attached to each question. For the older topics, there will be many comparisons between organs and tissues. The best way to study is to do the following: 1. use the guide list of terms for each organ and try to visualize each term. For example, if you cannot visualize the Sertoli cell nucleolus, then go to the virtual slide and capture the image. 2. print out the list and write out the function or definition for each term. For example, the Sertoli cell nucleus is large and euchromatic with a very large nucleolus and sometimes having 3 components. 3. also, try to visualize a low magnification picture of each organ histology. For example, what look similar/dissimilar between gallbladder, duodenum, oviduct and colon? There will be no practice exam, as the lab exercises are quite good and the term lists are quite thorough and these are nicely correlated with the lecture powerpoint slides. However, if you have any questions during your study efforts, please do not hesitate to email and we will do our best to assist. I wish you the very best, but recommend that you study comprehensively.

Posted/Modified on Saturday March 5th:
The CTB II Histology Final Exam is comprehensive. However, the emphasis will be over the new topics, Reproduction, Neurocytology, Ear and Eye. The following is a breakdown of questions: Old Topics: 27 questions New Topics: Male reproduction- 10 Female reproduction and placenta- 15 Neurocytology- 9 Ear- 5 Eye- 4

Posted/Modified on Thursday February 18th:
In lecture I had a memory slip. Here are the facts: 1 oligodendrocyte can wrap many axons but many Schwann cells can participate in wrapping 1 axon. Dr. H

Posted/Modified on Wednesday February 17th:
I just posted the lab 8 web exercise and objectives grid, so all materials for next week's lab are now available under the "Lab" tab of the CTB course web site. Scroll down to the section for Lab 8.

Posted/Modified on Saturday February 13th:
Dr. Hess has made up a practice CTB exam to help you in your preparation for the upcoming exam. It is called "Practice CTB II Exam 1." This is available in the normal "on-line exams" links where you go for all of your exams. Scroll down to the CTB course. The password for this exam is "practice". You can go through this exam as many times as you'd like. The first time through, it will behave like a "real" exam. If you end this first exam session, you will be permitted back into the exam. On all subsequent retakes, the exam will be in a "formative" mode, where you will get comments and hints from Dr. Hess for any incorrect responses. I suggest that you take advantage of this information. It will help you zero in on any misconceptions, and give you a better feel for what Dr. Hess feels is important for you to know.

Posted/Modified on Friday February 12th:
Just a reminder that the CTB II Exam on Tuesday will cover only through the Urinary System Dr. H

Posted/Modified on Tuesday February 2nd:
The TWO web exercises for upcoming lab 7 have just been posted to the "Labs" page of this web site. One is for the endocrine systems. The second is for the urinary system.

Posted/Modified on Thursday January 21st:
I just updated the Lecture slides for Urinary 2. These were minor changes but may clarify a few points.

Posted/Modified on Monday January 11th:
Dr. Hess has prepared a study guide for the upcoming progress exam. Find the link under the "Exams" tab of this web site. Also, here is a direct link: CTB II Progress Exam Study Guide.

Posted/Modified on Tuesday December 29th:
Powerpoint Slides.

CTBII Lectures are for scheduled for 50 minutes, which unfortunately is not an efficient manner in which to reveal all the facts needed for this course. The best that a professor can do is try to get your attention and then hopefully you will find the desire to complete the discovery process. Therefore, the Powerpoint slides will be split into “Lecture Slides” and “Outside study slides.” Hopefully we can complete the first part in class; however, regardless, we will stop after 50 minutes. You will be held responsible on exams for all powerpoint slides (Lecture and Outside) and associated virtual slides linked to your labs. I will attend your lab sessions and will consider that time as Office Hours, during which you may ask questions and catch up on topics that need further inquiry.

How should you study for CTBII? One method is to use the listed object terms found on the Study Guide, which will be listed on your Homepage under “Exams” (soon). Histology is a visual language; therefore, try to visualize each of the objects and search the virtual slides until you can visualize them. Then you should link structure with function and dysfunction, as discussed in lecture, text and labs.

Posted/Modified on Tuesday December 29th:
CTB II Information Sources for Histology:

Textbook: "Histology, A Text and Atlas, 6th Ed." by Ross and Pawlina_ Lecture notes and published powerpoint slides Lab notes from the Web based Atlas (by Dr. Williams) Armando Hasudungan: https://www.youtube.com/user/armandohasudungan?feature=watch Khan Academy: http://www.khanacademy.org Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page (often a quick source for general information but not always 100% accurate)

Posted/Modified on Tuesday December 29th:
The second semester of Cell and Tissue Biology will be organized similar to the first semester. Lecture and lab materials will be made available online as they are completed. The first lecture is Jan. 5, 2016, 9am. The study guide lists the structures to identify, define, and to describe their locations and functions. A few example questions will also be included. The Progress exam will be held Feb 5 and will cover everything through the Urinary System. All questions will be single best answer and may or may not have photomicrographs for identification. The final exam, March 18, will be comprehensive and comparative across all organs studied in the Spring semester. On the final exam, every question will be related to a photomicrograph of the tissues. A short practice exam will be arranged online prior to each exam.

The textbook "Histology, A Text and Atlas, 6th Edition", by Ross and Pawlina will be used as a supplement, which can be very helpful in providing explanations and backfilling information from the lectures. Lectures will provide the basis for the exams but the textbook will be able to provide far greater detail. Lectures will be 50 minutes; therefore, it may be necessary at times to simply end before completing all the slides. The virtual slides used in the laboratory will be used for photos included in the exams, because they provide better contrast for tissue recognition and are more comparable to the staining of slides in pathology.

If you have any questions, please email: rexhess@illinois.edu. My cell phone number will be provided in class or by email. I look forward to working with you this semester and wish you the best. Rex A. Hess, PhD; Professor Emeritus, Dept. of Comparative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine.

Posted/Modified on Friday October 30th:
I just posted some practice questions for the upcoming final exam. Find it on the main M1 exam page, under CTB. The exam password is "password".

The first time through the exam will behave as a regular exam. After you end your exam session from the "Question Review" page, you will be permitted back in. On subsequent retakes the exam will be in "feedback" mode. It will give hints for any incorrect responses. These hints may help in your exam preparation.

Don't forget about the final exam study guide and study questions. Links are on the "Exams" page of the CTB web site.

Posted/Modified on Wednesday October 21st:
I just posted the web exercise for next week's lab 5 (the last one this semester!) Go to the CTB course web site, go to the "Labs" page, and scroll down to lab 5.

Posted/Modified on Wednesday October 21st:
Correction on karatinocyte transit times. In my lecture notes I say it is 12-14 days. The current edition of the test has the following information about karatinocyte transit times through the various layers of the epidermis:

stratum corneum transit time = 15 days (probably what my original notes refers to rather than total transit time)

stratum spinosum & granulosum transit time = 31 days

stratum basale transit time = 1-2 days

So, total transit time from basal to desquamation at surface = 15 + 31 + (1 or 2) = 47-48 days

©  1999 Benjamin D. Williams, Ph.D., Aulikki Kokko-Cunningham, M.D., Steven Cvetko, Ph.D, Richard Mintel, Ph.D., and the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. All rights reserved.